Full-blown virtual reality, by contrast, will be interactive. Leaving people to die is an unacceptable solution. Many biomolecules have properties that might be explored in the early phases of nanotechnology. Improvements in medical care will extend healthy, active lifespan – “healthspan” – and research into healthspan extension is likely to benefit ordinary care. Many experts in molecular nanotechnology believe that in its mature stage nanotechnology will enable the revival of cryonics patients. Drexler’s later writings supplied more technical analyses that confirmed his initial conclusions. The 1017 IPS estimate is obtained by multiplying the number of neurons in a human brain (~100 billion) with the average number of synapses per neuron (~1,000) and with the average spike rate (~100 Hz), and assuming ~10 instructions to represent the effect on one action potential traversing one synapse. Transhuman technologies will tend to work well together and create synergies with other parts of human society. A change in average life span would not have a big effect. Would it be boring to live for an indefinitely long time in a greatly improved world? If the RNA sequence of a virus is posted on the Internet, then anybody with some basic expertise and access to a lab will be able to synthesize the actual virus from this description. If the upload’s clock-rate were a thousand times that of a biological brain, it would perceive reality as being slowed down by a factor of a thousand. What about the hypothetical case in which someone intends to create, or turn themselves into, a being of so radically enhanced capacities that a single one or a small group of such individuals would be capable of taking over the planet? The world is desiring to modify the human body to cyborgs and trying to engineer genetics. Much more important than its philosophical implications, however, would be its practical effects. Some argue that cloning humans is not unnatural because human clones are essentially just identical twins. If it works, it may save your life. Many transhumanists have a pragmatic attitude: whether they would like to upload or not depends on the precise conditions in which they would live as uploads and what the alternatives are. (See also “If these technologies are so dangerous, should they be banned?”). One could say that manipulating nature is an important part of what civilization and human intelligence is all about; we have been doing it since the invention of the wheel. This hypothetical point is referred to as the singularity. Université de Bâle. Secular worldviews, including traditional humanism, would typically include some sort of explanation of why death was not such a bad thing after all. Alternatively, one could say that since we are part of nature, everything we do and create is in a sense natural too. High-tech industry is typically relatively benign. No authorship is claimed by the creators of this website. Transhumanisme ! If some people would still choose death, that’s a choice that is of course to be regretted, but nevertheless this choice must be respected. The use of genetic medicine or embryonic screening to increase the probability of a healthy, happy, and multiply talented child is a responsible and justifiable application of parental reproductive freedom. What we know now is that it is possible to stabilize a patient’s condition by cooling him or her in liquid nitrogen (- 196 C°). If you were running on a fast computer, you would think faster than in a biological implementation. However, the optimism of the late 19th century often degenerated into narrow-minded positivism and the belief that progress was automatic. The completion of the human genome project – a “rough draft” of the entire human genome was published in the year 2000 – was a scientific milestone by anyone’s standards. Arranged one way, they make up homes and fresh air; arranged another, they make up ash and smoke. In molecular manufacturing, each atom would go to a selected place, bonding with other atoms in a precisely designated manner. Evaluating the total probability that some existential disaster will do us in before we get the opportunity to become posthuman can be done by various direct or indirect methods. Furthermore, it is hard to see how more than a few hundred million people could be maintained at a reasonable standard of living with pre-industrial production methods, so some ninety percent of the world population would somehow have to vanish in order to facilitate this nostalgic return. For technologies that have decisive military applications, unless they can be verifiably banned, we may seek to ensure that they are developed at a faster pace in countries we regard as responsible than in those that we see as potential enemies. Le cycle UniverSCité vise à ouvrir l’Université sur la Cité. The first step to tackling a risk is to recognize its existence. Existential risks are a different kind of beast. On this approach, we would strive to retard the development of harmful technologies and their applications, while accelerating the development of beneficial technologies, especially those that offer protection against the harmful ones. Elliot’s writing around the same time. Transhumanists reject speciesism, the (human racist) view that moral status is strongly tied to membership in a particular biological species, in our case homo sapiens. Everybody recognizes the benefit to ailing patients and their families that come from curing specific diseases. Heavy head-mounted display helmets and lag times between tracking device and graphics update can also cause discomfort. If you want to learn more about transhumanist topics, meet like-minded individuals, and participate in some way the transhumanist effort, see “How can I get involved and contribute?”. If you are participating in a remote event through VR, as in the example of the imagined football spectator, you are said to be telepresent at that event. If slowing aging were unacceptable because it might lead to there being more people, what about efforts to cure cancer, reduce traffic deaths, or improve worker safety? It also means that voluntary euthanasia, under conditions of informed consent, is a basic human right. Hierdie bladsy is 'n besprekingsbladsy waar verbeteringe tot die Transhumanisme-artikel bespreek word. And crucially, modern science began to take form then, through the works of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Another influential early transhumanist was F. M. Esfandiary, who later changed his name to FM-2030. In fact, it is perfectly possible to be a transhuman – or, for that matter, a transhumanist – and still embrace most traditional values and principles of personal conduct. The assembler arms would grab a molecule (but not necessarily individual atoms) and add it to a work-piece, constructing an atomically precise object step by step. Depending on your situation and your needs, you might or might not find some of the currently available human modification or enhancement options useful. A virtual reality is a simulated environment that your senses perceive as real. If people can look forward to a longer healthy, active life, they will have a personal stake in the future and will hopefully be more concerned about the long-term consequences of their actions. The WTA began publishing the Journal of Evolution and Technology, the first scholarly peer-reviewed journal for transhumanist studies in 1999 (which is also the year when the first version of this FAQ was published). Inp-patrimoine @Inp_patrimoine L'Institut national du patrimoine est un établissement d'enseignement supérieur du ministère de la culture et de la communication. If nanotechnology were to be abused the consequences could be devastating. If we handle it badly, intelligent life might go extinct. Provided that we manage to avoid destroying civilization, Vinge thinks that a singularity is likely to happen as a consequence of advances in artificial intelligence, large systems of networked computers, computer-human integration, or some other form of intelligence amplification. Molecular nanotechnology is an anticipated manufacturing technology that will make it possible to build complex three-dimensional structures to atomic specification using chemical reactions directed by nonbiological machinery. It is unclear why anybody who has had enhancement body parts or a nomadic lifestyle is any closer to becoming a posthuman than the rest of us; nor, of course, are such persons necessarily more admirable or morally commendable than others. Another way of forming a view of where we are headed is by looking at trends. Es tracta d’una iniciativa impulsada per l’institut Berggruen organisme creat per l’inversor When discussing the morality of genetic enhancements, it is useful to be aware of the distinction between enhancements that are intrinsically beneficial to the child or society on the one hand, and, on the other, enhancements that provide a merely positional advantage to the child. As a result of these circumstances in the distant past, we now suffer the inevitable decline of old age: damage accumulates at a faster pace than it can be repaired; tissues and organs begin to malfunction; and then we keel over and die. In any case, there is no moral reason why we shouldn’t intervene in nature and improve it if we can, whether by eradicating diseases, improving agricultural yields to feed a growing world population, putting communication satellites into orbit to provide homes with news and entertainment, or inserting contact lenses in our eyes so we can see better. It may turn out to be impossible to live forever, strictly speaking, even for those who are lucky enough to survive to such a time when technology has been perfected, and even under ideal conditions. But on those occasions when we do remember – whether it comes from the total fulfillment of being immersed in creative work or from the tender ecstasy of reciprocated love – then we realize just how valuable every single minute of existence can be, when it is this good. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Alors l’institut Berggruen, c’est un think-tank US qui réfléchi sur les futures gouvernances internationales et les réformes à opérer pour qu’elles fonctionnent mieux et selon certains critères mondialistes. Singularitarian transhumanists focus on transhuman technologies that can potentially lead to the rise of smarter-than-human intelligence, such as brain-computer interfacing and Artificial Intelligence. Greg Burch, David Pearce, Kathryn Aegis, and Anders Sandberg kindly offered extensive editorial comments. The typical pattern with new technologies is that they become cheaper as time goes by. Transhumanists want to live longer because they want to do, learn, and experience more; have more fun and spend more time with loved ones; continue to grow and mature beyond the paltry eight decades allotted to us by our evolutionary past; and in order to get to see for themselves what wonders the future might hold. More wrote the first definition of transhumanism in its modern sense, and created his own distinctive brand of transhumanism, which emphasized individualism, dynamic optimism, and the market mechanism in addition to technology. This would set a standard for a clean environment that today’s traditional environmentalists could scarcely dream of. Why use double standards? Transhumanism is compatible with a variety of ethical systems, and transhumanists themselves hold many different views. Therefore, transhumanists advocate individual freedom, especially the right for those who so wish to use technology to extend their mental and physical capacities and to improve their control over their own lives. At least since the late 19th century, science and technology, as measured by a wide range of indicators, have doubled about every 15 years (Price 1986). Others you might not have thought of, such as getting a cryonic suspension contract (see “What is cryonics? Could they even cause our extinction? Before transhumanism, the only hope of evading death was through reincarnation or otherworldly resurrection. The Hedonistic Imperative. Even with full-blown space colonization, however, population growth can continue to be a problem, and this is so even if we assume that an unlimited number of people could be transported from Earth into space. such as improving the situation of the poor, rather than putting our efforts into planning for the “far” future? Democratic transhumanism. The human brain’s processing power is difficult to determine precisely, but common estimates range from 1014 instructions per second (IPS) up to 1017 IPS or more. You could travel at the speed of light as an information pattern, which could be convenient in a future age of large-scale space settlements. If you got rid of the pain and stress associated with, say, filling out annual tax returns, people would probably not sit around afterward saying: “Life feels meaningless now that I no longer have income tax forms to fill out.”. Open an issue on GitHub, or send an email to [email protected] With advanced virtual reality, uploads could enjoy food and drink, and upload sex could be as gloriously messy as one could wish. Who owns your property? Other countries have similar programs, and private investment is ample. There was therefore little selection pressure to evolve the cellular repair mechanisms (and pay their metabolic costs) that would be required to keep us going beyond our meager three scores and ten. One possibility is that progress in computational neuroscience will teach us about the computational architecture of the human brain and what learning rules it employs. The WTA focused on supporting transhumanism as a serious academic discipline and on promoting public awareness of transhumanist thinking. If eternal life becomes boring, you will have the option of ending it at any time. In the preparation of version 2.0, the following people have been especially helpful: Eliezer Yudkowsky, who provided editorial assistance with comments on particular issues of substance; Dale Carrico who proofread the first half of the text; and Michael LaTorra who did the same for the second half; and “Reason” who then went over the whole document again, as did Frank Forman, and Sarah Banks Forman. In addition to scholarly studies of the threats and their possible countermeasures, public awareness must be raised to enable a more informed debate of our long-term options. The goal of creating a new and better world through a centrally imposed vision became taboo and passé; and the horrors of the Stalinist Soviet Union again underscored the dangers of such an approach. In this approach, the super­intelligence would not be completely specified by the programmers but would instead have to grow by learning from experience the same way a human infant does. – involve genetic predispositions. The only long-term method of assuring continued growth of average income is some form of population control, whether spontaneous or imposed, limiting the number of new persons created per year. One could ask those who complain about overpopulation exactly which people’s lives they would have preferred should not have been led. Humans are not simply apes who can obtain more bananas using our intelligence as a tool. For example, one important factor in healthy life expectancy is access to good medical care. In somatic gene therapy, a virus is typically used as a vector to insert genetic material into the cells of the recipient’s body. Transhumanists insist that whether something is natural or not is irrelevant to whether it is good or desirable (see also “Isn’t this tampering with nature?”, “Will extended life worsen overpopulation problems?”, and “Why do transhumanists want to live longer?”). (Remember all those breakthrough cancer cures that we never heard of again?) It was a life of poverty, misery, disease, heavy manual toil from dawn to dusk, superstitious fears, and cultural parochialism. Of course, this is not to deny that too-rapid population growth can cause crowding, poverty, and the depletion of natural resources. For artificial intelligence, a serious risk will emerge only when capabilities approach or surpass those of humans. Most people today are thus living highly unnaturally long lives. Another concern is that the first super­intelligence, which may become very powerful because of its superior planning ability and because of the technologies it could swiftly develop, would be built to serve only a single person or a small group (such as its programmers or the corporation that commissioned it). These problems are being intensely studied by contemporary analytic philosophers, and although some progress has been made, e.g. The paramount question is: What can be done to maximize the chances that the arrival of super­intelligence will benefit rather than harm us? This is clearly not a situation that is likely to arise in the imminent future, but one can imagine that, perhaps in a few decades, the prospective creation of superintelligent machines could raise this kind of concern. Then another neuron, and so on, until eventually the whole cortex has been replaced and the person’s thinking is implemented on entirely artificial hardware. In 1988, the first issue of the Extropy Magazine was published by Max More and Tom Morrow, and in 1992 they founded the Extropy Institute (the term “extropy” being coined as an informal opposite of “entropy”). The World-Wide Web is beginning to link the world’s people, adding a new global layer to human society where information is supreme. Until recently there was absolutely nothing anybody could do about it, and it made some degree of sense then to create comforting philosophies according to which dying of old age is a fine thing (“deathism”). Transhumanism is a class of philosophies of life that seek the continuation and acceleration of the evolution of intelligent life beyond its currently human form and human limitations by means of science and technology, guided by life-promoting principles and values. To counteract such tendencies, modern societies have created laws and institutions, and endowed them with powers of enforcement, that act to prevent groups of citizens from assaulting one another. TransHumans agence locale de tourisme responsable conçoit et organise votre voyage sur mesure en Argentine et au Chili Meanwhile, investment in the development of nanotechnology, already billions of dollars annually worldwide, is growing every year, and at least the less visionary aspects of nanotechnology have already become mainstream. Further, 3D vision is lacking, as is position tracking and focus effects (in reality, the picture on your retina changes continually as your head and eyeballs are moving). An advanced assembler would be able to make almost any chemically stable structure. In the case of biotechnology, we should seek to promote research into vaccines, anti-viral drugs, protective gear, sensors, and diagnostics, and to delay as long as possible the development and proliferation of biological warfare agents and the means of their weaponization. The arrival of super­intelligence will clearly deal a heavy blow to anthropocentric worldviews. In many particular cases, of course, there are sound practical reasons for relying on “natural” processes. 7. However, these lesser risks must not deflect attention from the more serious concern raised by more probable existential disasters (see “Aren’t these future technologies very risky? Isn’t the probability of success too small?”, “Aren’t these future technologies very risky? But if and when super­intelligence is created, it will be of paramount importance that it be endowed with human-friendly values. Better communications would facilitate trade and understanding between people. While it seems fairly well established that molecular nanotechnology is in principle possible, it is harder to determine how long it will take to develop. COVID-19 = VIRUS ARTIFICIEL fabriqué par l’institut du killer Louis Pasteur, un virus modifié, genre gaz neuro-toxique de l’armée. Cryonics is an experimental medical procedure that seeks to save lives by placing in low-temperature storage persons who cannot be treated with current medical procedures and who have been declared legally dead, in the hope that technological progress will eventually make it possible to revive them. Dirt, for example, is full of useful atoms. In this groundbreaking work, Drexler not only argued for the feasibility of assembler-based nanotechnology but also explored its consequences and began charting the strategic challenges posed by its development. We are using up essential resources, such as oil, metal ores, and atmospheric pollution capacity, faster than they regenerate. Working in concert with an assembler, it could function as a kind of 3D Xerox machine: a device for making atomically exact replicas of almost any existing solid object within reach. This is a confusion or corruption of the original meaning of the term. We have to live with this uncertainty, along with the much greater uncertainty about whether any of us will manage to avoid dying prematurely, before technology has become mature. In this sense there can be real problems that need to be tackled. Transhumanism can’t tell you what kind of music to listen to, which hobbies to pursue, whom to marry or how to live your life, any more than, say, being a member of Amnesty International or studying molecular biology could tell you these things. Education, discussion, public debate, critical thinking, artistic exploration, and, potentially, cognitive enhancers are means that can help people make more informed choices. In the course of becoming smarter, we have become bored by things that would have interested our ancestors. Extrapolating this exponential rate of progress, one is led to expect to see dramatic changes in the relatively near future. While not a religion, transhumanism might serve a few of the same functions that people have traditionally sought in religion. The boundaries between posthuman minds may not be as sharply defined as those between humans. (A terminological aside: an early use of the word “transhuman” was in the 1972-book of Ettinger, who doesn’t now remember where he first encountered the term. Today, we can foresee the possibility of eventually abolishing aging and we have the option of taking active measures to stay alive until then, through life extension techniques and, as a last resort, cryonics. The Transhumanist FAQ was developed in 1998 and authored into a formal FAQ in 1999 through the inspirational work of transhumanists, including Alexander Chislenko, Max More, Anders Sandberg, Natasha Vita-More, James Hughes, and Nick Bostrom. That technological advances will help us overcome many of our current human limitations is no longer an insight confined to a few handfuls of techno-savvy visionaries. There is no “it” that everything hinges on. A sufficiently long-lived human who didn’t make any errors and had a sufficient stack of scrap paper at hand could in principle compute any Turing computable function. This is a redesigned version of the Transhumanist FAQ. Only by compartmentalizing our thinking to a high degree can we imagine a world where there is mature molecular nanotechnology and superhuman artificial intelligence, but the means are still lacking to control the brain circuitry of boredom. Questions, thoughts, ideas, and such, can be sent to the same address, or to the discussion group on Google Groups. In a later work, Man into Superman (1972), he discussed a number of conceivable improvements to the human being, continuing the tradition started by Haldane and Bernal. In part, though, the answer is, “You decide.” The outcome may be influenced by the choices we make now and over the coming decades. ETRE HUMANITE: Écrit par Patinet Thierri Mardi 10 Novembre 2020 à 10:29 Le silence des agneaux . wearable computers, smart agents, information filtering systems, visualization software, etc. If one defines it simply as art that is concerned with the human aspiration to overcome current limits, then a large portion of all art through the ages would count as transhumanist – from ancient myths of Promethean hubris, to religious transcendental iconography, architecture, and rituals, J. S. Bach’s fugues, Goethe’s Faust, through to the postmodern artists, many of whom conceived of their work as an attempt to explode conceptual barriers in order to widen the reach of human creativity. In the long run, VR could unlock limitless possibilities for human creativity. The transhumanist tradition has produced a (still evolving) body of thinking to illuminate these complex issues that is unparalleled in its scope and depth of foresight. Isn’t the probability of success too small? (See also “Won’t these developments take thousands or millions of years?”). Could they even cause our extinction?”). Inp-patrimoine @Inp_patrimoine L'Institut national du patrimoine est un établissement d'enseignement supérieur du ministère de la culture et de la communication. It is interesting to note that the Dalai Lama, when asked, did not rule out the possibility of reincarnating into computers (Hayward et al. You will be able to move about in a virtual world, pick up objects you see, and communicate with people you meet. This resulted in the anti-technological, anti-intellectual sentiments whose sequelae we can still witness today in some postmodernist writers, in the New Age movement, and among the neo-Luddite wing of the anti-globalization agitators. Reproductive cloning, by contrast, would mean the birth of a child who is genetically identical to the cloned parent: in effect, a younger identical twin.

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