Heading of the plates of the « Modern Style » catalogues. The main claim of the current of Art Nouveau, of which Hector Guimard is one of the most important French exponents, is the unity of architecture, furnishings and layout of the rooms. [19] Louis-Étienne Baudier known as Baudier de Royaumont (1854-1918) is a journalist, editor, novel write and historian. May 1, 2018 - Explore Tom Coxon's board "hector guimard", followed by 204 people on Pinterest. the trend led by Henry Van de Velde who, unlike Horta, refuted any idea of inspiration from nature to build a purely linear and abstract decor and structure. The scheme is directly taken from a design by Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-le-duc for just such a school, to demonstrate the possibilities of iron structural technology. In fact, he will never want to explain himself on this dreamlike and fantastic side of the « Guimard Style », no doubt considering it to be a take-it-or-leave-it proposition. [2] « It all smells like vicious English, the morphine-addicted Jewess or the crafty Belgian, or a pleasant salad of these three poisons! Postcard n°1 of the series Le Style Guimard (detail). This Meuse-based company published several of its models intended for the equipment of its buildings, as well as the pavilions and kiosks of the subway. At the 1900 World’s Fair, Guimard created a remarkable stand for the perfumer Millot. Unable to allow such a hostile article to pass, Guimard had a reply published in the supplement of the magazine in February 1904. From the first of his three articles devoted to Castel Béranger[3] in 1896, the architect Louis-Charles Boileau had lit a counterfire to this accusation of foreign inspiration by pointing out to his readers that Guimard’s wallpapers were “not English”[4]. Guimard will never have disturbed as much, aroused contrary feelings, irreconcilable positions as at that time considered as one of the key periods of his career. Image based survey of the French architect's projects and designs, MOMA 1970 catalogue / supplemental materials, Listing of prominent works and designs of Guimard's, Site highlighting the furniture design of Guimard, Information page listing Guimard works and accomplishments, Image-based site featuring 29 slides of images and information on the architect, By Maria Dopjerova-Danthine / [6] Eugène-Auguste Chevassus (1863-1931) known as Eugène Belville, painter, decorator and art critique. Is there not a little demiurge in every architect? Art’s architecture consists of course in the horror of simplicity and straight lines which, curving, hunchbacking everything, goes so far as to give simple pillows a cleverly contoured shape… And also in refinements such as these inclined planes replacing the vulgar step by which one reaches a raised alcove elsewhere… Finally in the useless, if not unusable, look that everything takes on here, which is undoubtedly the supreme degree of luxury… »[16]. Millot commercial catalogue , pl. This opinion prevailed in the major decorative art magazines, such as Art et Décoration, in which an anonymous article was published in October 1903 commenting on the Housing Exhibition at the Grand Palais: « M. Guimard, in his pavilion, offers us an unbalanced mixture of good and bad things. Architect. The Castel Beranger is the building that made Guimard famous, and he regarded it as one of his most important, going so far as to include it along with the Humbert de Romans concert hall and the Paris Métro entrances as some of his most notable in an article in Architectural Record explaining Art Nouveau to an American audience in 1902. Reserves of the Saint-Dizier foundry (currently assigned to the collections of the Saint-Dizier museum). The draft agreement drawn up in November 1908 by the carpet manufacturer Aubert also provides for the registration of the drawings provided to the Commercial Court under the heading « Style Guimard ». The Castel Beranger's ornament is full of whiplash and undulating plastic surfaces, such as in the vestibule, whose walls are covered with glazed ceramic tile. ", "When the artist has met the demands of logic, that is to say when he has lived up to the requirements of a particular project and to the conditions in which he must labor, he has in a sense done the work of an engineer. The building makes extensive use of copper sheeting and ornament in the balconies, downspouts, and gates, much of which has been oxidized to a natural green, using strange motifs such as facial masks and seahorses. These models can be found in the perfumer’s commercial catalog, in the form of colorized drawings with the names of the perfumes and the company name “F. Guillaume Apollinaire, since he is the one in question, had a fairly extensive career as an art critic in the press. Entrances of Paris Metro were designed and created in 1898 to 1905.Guimard’s amazing metal Art Nouveau designs (c.1899-1901), with their flowing lines and floral shapes, shocked Parisians, who thought his use of iron far too Germanic. A few years later, in 1908, the title « Fontes artistiques » (artistic castings) in his catalogues published by the Saint-Dizier foundry would participate in the same qualitative inflation by wanting to indicate a production with a true artistic character, unlike almost all other ornamental castings on the market. It learns first of all, from M. Guimard himself, because he proclaims it on many labels, the existence of a Guimard Style. In this article, we will try to better define these different qualifiers and the times in which Guimard may have used them. First of all, it can, by antithesis, help the reader to better situate Guimard’s style by opposing it to the English style as regards wallpapers, a style then well-known and well recognizable. This new expression, probably too close to “Art nouveau”, will no longer be used, with one exception. — claims to be an art architect (!) Decorative, sensual, and uncompromising, Art Nouveau ('New Art') emerged as a dynamic and expressive style in the visual arts from the early 1890s to the First World War. ", "The artist does not create his environment; he is the product thereof. ", "Every great epoch has had a stylization of art. Cover of a fac-similé of the Castel Béranger portfolio. His designs embody the essence of the French Art Nouveau movement, incorporating superb materials, fine design and carved wood in a curvilinear and plastic style; looking at once like soft twisted satin or a sinuous living plantform, yet totally balanced in its entirety. Coll. Genuys is aiming here at the so-called “Belgian line”, i.e. At first, these appear to be nearly seamless, yet in fact they are constructed out of several cast iron parts that were easily mass-produced at the modern iron foundries to the east of Paris. Choses et gens qui passent (Visions of our time. He will remain faithful to it for at least a decade since it still appeared in 1909 on his wedding announcement. Guimard then planned to build a series of investment properties financed by the « Société Générale de Constructions Modernes » (formed in July 1910), of which he was a shareholder, along with his father-in-law and Léon Nozal. With a view to a homogeneous presentation, in addition to the decor and furniture, he was also commissioned to create models of bottles and boxes for the launch of several new perfumes and their derivatives. We will examine later the particular case of the catalogues of ornamental castings, but each plate of the catalogue of his Lustres Lumière, published before 1914, receives the mention « Style Guimard ». January 3, 2017, Brief video detailing the famous train entrances around the city, Brief Art Nouveau video that highlights Guimard works, In French - Video detailing Guimard works around France. And it is therefore easy to accept that he is known as an « ironworker of art » and « carpenter of art » when his production deserves it. In November 1909, the developer’s name was the « Société Immobilière de la rue Moderne » and, on the plans, the street to be created was actually named « Rue Moderne » (modern street). But other authors, more closely related, such as Édouard Molinier in his article published in Art et Décoration in March 1899 about the Castel Béranger, reject this idea: « Without denying Horta’s merit, there were perhaps better things for a French artist to do than to seek inspiration in Belgium. Taking its inspiration from the natural world, its characteristic motifs include delicate tendrils, organic forms, swooping, swirling lines, eccentric geometry and exotic bodies. On the upper part of each plate are affixed the words « Société des fonderies de St-Dizier (Haute-Marne) /Leclerc & Cie ». Due to the large number of references to the name Guimard, we refer to this type of catalogue as « Style Guimard ». We would have preferred to witness an attempt, however incomplete, to resurrect the old French style. In 1901, just a few months after the publication of Forthuny’s text, an issue of La Vie Moderne published an anonymous but fascinating article entitled « Le Style Guimard ». By disregarding the conventions of the time, he did not hesitate to be as disturbing for the formal side of his creation as for the way he qualified it. Private collection. » Alexandre, Arsène, Le Figaro, 28 December 1895. It’s the Guimard style and you know the Metro. They taper towards the bottom, with flared joints where they join the I-beams that support the rest of the school structure above, resembling torches that may represent the archetypal lamp of learning. ", "A style of architecture, in order to be true, must be the product of the soil it exists and of the period which needs it. Although ephemeral, the use of this term did not escape the notice of the decorator Eugène Belville[6], who, in the 1897 magazine Notes d’art et d’archéologie, ironically criticised Guimard’s use of the term, who, he wrote, « epigraphed his madreporic constructions with the title of Style National Moderne ». »[10]. [Internet]. Guimard even consulted noted composer Camille Saint-Saens on the hall's design, producing magnificent acoustic effects. It was around 1906-1910 that the adjective « modern » came back more insistently. Hector Guimard, in full Hector-Germain Guimard, (born March 10, 1867, Lyon, France—died May 20, 1942, New York, New York, U.S.), architect, decorator, and furniture designer, probably the best-known French representative of Art Nouveau.. Guimard studied and later taught at the School of Decorative Arts and at the École des Beaux-Arts (“School of Fine Arts”) in Paris. However, they can also be used with a slightly pejorative meaning. Private collection. Thus one can better understand the wording of the sign on the stand designed by Guimard for the company Gilardoni & Brault at the Exhibition of Ceramics at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in 1897[5]. Several clues prove that Guimard was trying to escape the anathema of cosmopolitanism that could be thrown at him at any moment. It is also the subject of an explanatory text entitled « Le Style Guimard » which appears on the leaflet used to wrap the cards and on the back of the leaflet accompanying the lecture he gave on 27 October at the Grand Palais. Nonetheless, the building spawned numerous detractors who decried the curious forms of Art Nouveau, nicknaming the building the "Castel Dérangé" (Deranged Castle). Guimard's first significant work, the École du Sacré Coeur, an elementary education facility in the 16th arrondissement, shows the way that he uses technological innovations to improve on a classic building type in French architecture. Cover of a « Style Moderne » catalogue. 1867-1942. [5] The National Exhibition of Ceramics and all the Arts of Fire was held at the Palace of Fine Arts on the Champ-de-Mars from 15 May to 31 July 1897 and was extended until 5 September. It accompanies that of « Architect of Art » on the series of postcards sold on this occasion. I witnessed it the other day in one of our department stores when a customer, on the occasion of a Christmas gift, was bargaining an art object, and the clerk selling her this article added: This is what we do best now, it’s Guimard style. [22] Marcel Bernhardt known as Alcanter de Brahm (1868-1942) is a writer, poet, art critic and later became assistant curator of the Carnavalet Museum. Hector Guimard practiced what he preached. By this Guimard simply meant that he wished to give his entire production an artistic character that would distinguish it from ordinary architectural and decorative productions. However, this programme, which reflects the rationalist side of his creation, lacks the unbridled decorative inventiveness that rejected most critics and the public at the time and which is so attractive to us now. All the art historians who have studied Guimard’s work have not failed to note the immoderate use of the various qualifiers he used for his work. It is that of the foundry Bigot-Renaux, specialized in gutters to which Guimard frequently had recourse for Castel Béranger. Guimard used the same design on correspondence cards, also used in 1903. Private collection. [14] Guimard, Hector, « La Renaissance de l’art dans l’architecture moderne » (the Renaissance of art in modern architecture), Le Moniteur des Arts, 7 July 1899. Private collection. The porch of Guimard’s pavilion at the Housing Exhibition at the Grand Palais in 1903. It could seat an audience of 1150 people - one of only two venues in Paris to accommodate that many spectators - on chairs designed by Guimard with a twisted, mass-produced iron frame, all painted green with luxurious embroidered cushions monogrammed "HR." Project for a Guimard style electric ceiling light. The pattern castings catalogues created by Guimard and published at the Saint-Dizier foundry from 1908 onwards offer an illuminating example of the use of the terms « Style Guimard » and « Style Moderne ». The seamless harmony and flow that reigns in the aesthetic of Guimard's buildings and other works very much mirrors the kind of harmonious environment and society that Guimard hoped the world could eventually achieve politically, though this never came to pass. […]. Private collection. It seems that Guimard’s perseverance finally had some results and brought the expression « Style Guimard » into the language of the time, at least in Paris. Much of Guimard’s work was more engineering than architecture, but he considered himself an architecte d’art. A debate has thus begun, through articles, on the legitimacy of the architect to give his name to a style.

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