Spectators at the Salon d'Automne passed through the plaster facade, designed by Duchamp-Villon, to the two furnished rooms. Cubism, highly influential visual arts style of the 20th century that was created principally by the artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in Paris between 1907 and 1914. Picasso décompose ainsi l'image en multiples facettes (ou cubes, d'où le nom de cubisme) et détruit les formes du réel pour plonger dans des figures parfois étranges (comme une figure représentée sur une moitié de face, et sur l'autre de côté). Gelett Burgess, "The Wild Men of Paris: Matisse, Picasso, and Les Fauves". Le cubisme prend essentiellement sa source dans les travaux de Paul Cézanne, qui cherche à créer un nouvel espace pictural non basé sur une simple imitation du réel[9]. Des études de Marie Laurencin datant du printemps et de l'été 1907 montrent déjà la très grande influence du tableau de Picasso. [5] In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from a single viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.[6]. El cubisme tractava les formes de la naturalesa per mitjà de figures geomètriques, representant totes les parts d'un objecte en un mateix pla. [17] Gertrude Stein referred to landscapes made by Picasso in 1909, such as Reservoir at Horta de Ebro, as the first Cubist paintings. The French art critic Louis Vauxcelles coined the term Cubism after seeing the landscapes Braque had painted in 1908 at LEstaque in emulation of Cézanne. Cubism had become an influential factor in the development of modern architecture from 1912 (La Maison Cubiste, by Raymond Duchamp-Villon and André Mare) onwards, developing in parallel with architects such as Peter Behrens and Walter Gropius, with the simplification of building design, the use of materials appropriate to industrial production, and the increased use of glass. The poets generally associated with Cubism are Guillaume Apollinaire, Blaise Cendrars, Jean Cocteau, Max Jacob, André Salmon and Pierre Reverdy. As American poet Kenneth Rexroth explains, Cubism in poetry "is the conscious, deliberate dissociation and recombination of elements into a new artistic entity made self-sufficient by its rigorous architecture. Cubisme és un moviment estètic que va ocórrer entre 1907 i 1914, tenint com principals fundadors a Pablo Picasso, considerat el líder del moviment, i Georges Braque. In 1912, Galeries Dalmau presented the first declared group exhibition of Cubism worldwide (Exposició d'Art Cubista),[31][32][33] with a controversial showing by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Juan Gris, Marie Laurencin and Marcel Duchamp (Barcelona, 20 April to 10 May 1912). Débats parlementaires. Aimed at a large public, these works stressed the use of multiple perspective and complex planar faceting for expressive effect while preserving the eloquence of subjects endowed with literary and philosophical connotations. Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. "[20], There was a distinct difference between Kahnweiler's Cubists and the Salon Cubists. [1][2] The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre and Montparnasse) or near Paris (Puteaux) during the 1910s and throughout the 1920s. Braque se distancie ici de l'imitation fidèle du réel pour représenter un espace propre à la toile : il élimine ainsi différents détails et simplifie la forme des bâtiments pour les réduire à de simples cubes[9]. The Dalmau exhibition comprised 83 works by 26 artists. ?? Picasso worked in Montmartre until 1912, while Braque and Gris remained there until after the First World War. Avec Cheval majeur, il rejoint les préoccupations futuristes. In this way, the entire surfaces of the facades including even the gables and dormers are sculpted. [43] The controversy spread to the Municipal Council of Paris, leading to a debate in the Chambre des Députés about the use of public funds to provide the venue for such art. Easy editing on desktops, tablets, and smartphones. But "this view of Cubism is associated with a distinctly restrictive definition of which artists are properly to be called Cubists," wrote the art historian Christopher Green: "Marginalizing the contribution of the artists who exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1911 [...]"[4], The assertion that the Cubist depiction of space, mass, time, and volume supports (rather than contradicts) the flatness of the canvas was made by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler as early as 1920,[18] but it was subject to criticism in the 1950s and 1960s, especially by Clement Greenberg. [4], In contrast, the Salon Cubists built their reputation primarily by exhibiting regularly at the Salon d'Automne and the Salon des Indépendants, both major non-academic Salons in Paris. "Eccentric School of Painting Increases Its Vogue in the Current Art Exhibition – What Its Followers Attempt to Do". Des éléments de la réalité sont réintroduits, notamment par le collage de papiers ou donnant des indications de matière à l'objet représenté. It came to rely heavily on Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler's book Der Weg zum Kubismus (published in 1920), which centered on the developments of Picasso, Braque, Léger, and Gris. The motif of the viaduct at l'Estaque had inspired Braque to produce three paintings marked by the simplification of form and deconstruction of perspective. English art historian Douglas Cooper proposed another scheme, describing three phases of Cubism in his book, The Cubist Epoch. La Revue des Musées de France: Revue du Louvre no. In France and other countries Futurism, Suprematism, Dada, Constructivism, Vorticism, De Stijl and Art Deco developed in response to Cubism. Réciproquement, Picasso applique à son tableau la ligne entre les aplats que pratique la jeune peintre, admirée par Braque depuis des années. Wider views of Cubism include artists who were later associated with the "Salle 41" artists, e.g., Francis Picabia; the brothers Jacques Villon, Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Marcel Duchamp, who beginning in late 1911 formed the core of the Section d'Or (or the Puteaux Group); the sculptors Alexander Archipenko, Joseph Csaky and Ossip Zadkine as well as Jacques Lipchitz and Henri Laurens; and painters such as Louis Marcoussis, Roger de La Fresnaye, František Kupka, Diego Rivera, Léopold Survage, Auguste Herbin, André Lhote, Gino Severini (after 1916), María Blanchard (after 1916) and Georges Valmier (after 1918). Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Kupka's two entries at the 1912 Salon d'Automne, Amorpha-Fugue à deux couleurs and Amorpha chromatique chaude, were highly abstract (or nonrepresentational) and metaphysical in orientation. nécessaire]. According to Douglas Cooper: "The first true Cubist sculpture was Picasso's impressive Woman's Head, modeled in 1909–10, a counterpart in three dimensions to many similar analytical and faceted heads in his paintings at the time. [39], Extensive media coverage (in newspapers and magazines) before, during and after the exhibition launched the Galeries Dalmau as a force in the development and propagation of modernism in Europe. 1 (2014), pp. Cubisme. Gleizes was a founding member of the Section d'Or group of artists. trans., London, 1913), Robert Rosenblum, "Cubism," Readings in Art History 2 (1976), Seuphor, Sculpture of this Century, P. R. Banham. B. peintre (Jacques Bon) 1914); Jean Crotti; Hugo Robus; Stanton MacDonald-Wright; and Frances Simpson Stevens (center), Every Week, Vol. [81] Czech Cubist architects also designed Cubist furniture. [50] Cooper goes on to say: "The Demoiselles is generally referred to as the first Cubist picture. Amongst the Cubist works presented, Robert Delaunay exhibited his Eiffel Tower, Tour Eiffel (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York). They became friendly rivals and competed with each other throughout their careers, perhaps leading to Picasso entering a new period in his work by 1907, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian and African art. Other influences on early Cubism have been linked to Primitivism and n… 2, oil on canvas, 146 x 114 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris, Henri Le Fauconnier, 1910–11, L'Abondance (Abundance), oil on canvas, 191 x 123 cm, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, Marcel Duchamp, 1911, La sonate (Sonata), oil on canvas, 145.1 x 113.3 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pablo Picasso, 1911, La Femme au Violon, oil on canvas, private collection, on long-term loan to Bavarian State Painting Collections, Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich, Fernand Léger, 1911–1912, Les Fumeurs (The Smokers), oil on canvas, 129.2 x 96.5 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Georges Braque, 1911–12, Man with a Guitar (Figure, L’homme à la guitare), oil on canvas, 116.2 x 80.9 cm, Museum of Modern Art, Jacques Villon, 1912, Girl at the Piano (Fillette au piano), oil on canvas, 129.2 x 96.4 cm, oval, Museum of Modern Art, New York. Neo-Impressionist structure and subject matter, most notably to be seen in the works of Georges Seurat (e.g., Parade de Cirque, Le Chahut and Le Cirque), was another important influence. B. peintre, The Sun, New York, 2 January 1916, Albert Gleizes (with Chal Post, 1915); Marcel Duchamp (with his brother Jacques Villon's Portrait de M. J. The purifying of Cubism from 1914 through the mid-1920s, with its cohesive unity and voluntary constraints, has been linked to a much broader ideological transformation towards conservatism in both French society and French culture. Cette méthode est mise au point par Pablo Picasso vers 1909[27]. Les contrastes sont mis en avant, les formes sont simplifiées, de manière très géométrique, à l’opposé de la peinture classique. It mirrored the attitudes of the "artists of Passy", which included Picabia and the Duchamp brothers, to whom sections of it were read prior to publication. En 1908, le jeune peintre espagnol Juan Gris rejoint son ami Picasso au Bateau-Lavoir[9]. The movement was pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, and Fernand Léger. Elles partagent également une récurrence des formes géométriques et du thème de la modernité. Cubism was one of the most influential styles of the twentieth century. It does not harmonize with this or that ensemble; it harmonizes with things in general, with the universe: it is an organism...". Sa correspondance avec Émile Bernard, qui comprend ses théories sur la composition picturale, est alors publiée[9]. Pablo Picasso et George Braque s exercent simultanément à sa pratique et se décident pour cette voie artistique indépendamment l un de l autre. Néanmoins cette technique souligne bien le paradoxe de la peinture si cher aux cubistes. Just as in painting, Cubist sculpture is rooted in Paul Cézanne's reduction of painted objects into component planes and geometric solids (cubes, spheres, cylinders, and cones). Exhibited at the 1913 Armory Show, Francis Picabia, 1912, La Source (The Spring), oil on canvas, 249.6 x 249.3 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, Fernand Léger, 1912–13, Nude Model in the Studio (Le modèle nu dans l'atelier), oil on burlap, 128.6 x 95.9 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. L’aventure cubiste avec Picasso s’arrête quand, en 1914, Braque est mobilisé pour la guerre. [21], Louis Vauxcelles, in his review of the 26th Salon des Indépendants (1910), made a passing and imprecise reference to Metzinger, Gleizes, Delaunay, Léger and Le Fauconnier as "ignorant geometers, reducing the human body, the site, to pallid cubes. [65], Cubism was relevant to an architecture seeking a style that needed not refer to the past. 91, 93, ill. no. Early Futurist paintings hold in common with Cubism the fusing of the past and the present, the representation of different views of the subject pictured at the same time, also called multiple perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity,[9] while Constructivism was influenced by Picasso's technique of constructing sculpture from separate elements. Suivi par le cubisme synthétique et l'orphisme (1912) puis interrompu pendant la Grande Guerre (1914 à 1918), le mouvement demeure actif jusqu'au milieu des années 1920, notamment grâce au soutien des marchands d'art Léonce Rosenberg et Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. Néanmoins, malgré des compositions simples, de ces productions émanent des forces, une magie particulière, un expressionnisme peut-être rudimentaire mais au moins tout aussi puissant. Léger's The Wedding, also shown at the Salon des Indépendants in 1912, gave form to the notion of simultaneity by presenting different motifs as occurring within a single temporal frame, where responses to the past and present interpenetrate with collective force. Elle s'étend de 1904 à début 1911, qui voit le cubisme se structurer en un mouvement artistique. Selon John Golding, historien de l’art et spécialiste du cubisme, « le cubisme est un langage pictural absolument original, une façon d’aborder le monde totalement neuve, et une théorie esthétique conceptualisée. [44] The Cubists were defended by the Socialist deputy, Marcel Sembat.[44][45][46]. Cubism burgeoned between 1907 and 1911. Pour donner plus d'importance aux toits, qui étaient peu nombreux, […] de manière à les rendre lisibles dans le paysage […] il avait continué les signes qui représentent les toits par des lignes qui entraient dans le ciel et les avaient peintes dans le ciel. One even wonders why the artist has not used cubes of solid matter diversely colored: they would make pretty revetments." Collaborateur et ami de Picasso, qu'il rencontre dans son atelier à Paris en 1907, Georges Braque conduit également des expérimentations picturales inspirées par Cézanne ainsi que par le fauvisme, fondé en 1905[9]. In one scheme, the first phase of Cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, a phrase coined by Juan Gris a posteriori,[11] was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1910 and 1912 in France. [3] One primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. Après Pablo Picasso, initiateur de la sculpture cubiste dès 1909 (Tête de Fernande), les principaux sculpteurs cubistes sont Alexandre Archipenko, Joseph Csaky, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Jacques Lipchitz, Henri Laurens, Pablo Gargallo et Ossip Zadkine. [64] The historical, theoretical, and socio-political relationships between avant-garde practices in painting, sculpture and architecture had early ramifications in France, Germany, the Netherlands and Czechoslovakia. L'Homme au Balcon, Man on a Balcony (Portrait of Dr. Théo Morinaud), The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations, Soldat jouant aux échecs (Soldier at a Game of Chess, Le Soldat à la partie d'échecs), École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Le Dépiquage des Moissons (Harvest Threshing), Les Joueurs de football (Football Players), Femme au miroir (Femme à sa toilette, Lady at her Dressing Table), Femme au gant noir (Woman with Black Glove), Nature morte, Compotier et cruche décorée de cerfs, l'Homme au Balcon, Man on a Balcony (Portrait of Dr. Théo Morinaud), Fondation Gleizes, Chronologie (in French), Robert Delaunay, Eiffel Tower (Tour Eiffel), 1911 (dated 1910 by the artist). [7][8] The impact of Cubism was far-reaching and wide-ranging. The ready-made arose from a joint consideration that the work itself is considered an object (just as a painting), and that it uses the material detritus of the world (as collage and papier collé in the Cubist construction and Assemblage). "[82] Nonetheless, the Cubist poets' influence on both Cubism and the later movements of Dada and Surrealism was profound; Louis Aragon, founding member of Surrealism, said that for Breton, Soupault, Éluard and himself, Reverdy was "our immediate elder, the exemplary poet. [42], The Cubist contribution to the 1912 Salon d'Automne created scandal regarding the use of government owned buildings, such as the Grand Palais, to exhibit such artwork. (John Berger)[85], Georges Braque, 1909–10, La guitare (Mandora, La Mandore), oil on canvas, 71.1 x 55.9 cm, Tate Modern, London, Albert Gleizes, 1910, La Femme aux Phlox (Woman with Phlox), oil on canvas, 81 x 100 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. A diagram need not eschew certain aspects of appearance but these too will be treated as signs not as imitations or recreations. Il introduit la notion de mouvement dans son Cheval majeur, produisant l'impression d'une machine vivante. Neither phase was designated as such at the time corresponding works were created. En revanche, la lumière occupe une place très importante et elle se répartit de manière différente sur chaque fragment. [77], The original Cubist architecture is very rare. « Dans mon souvenir, c'est Braque qui a fait la première peinture cubiste. Quelques-uns des tableaux peints par Braque à l'Estaque sont rassemblés et présentés en 1909 par Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler dans sa galerie parisienne ; il s'agit là de la première exposition personnelle de Braque[9]. The grilles as well as other architectural ornaments attain a three-dimensional form. Le cubisme est un mouvement artistique du début du XXe siècle, qui constitue une révolution dans la peinture et la sculpture, et influence également l'architecture, la littérature et la musique. Entre 1914 et 1920, Robert Delaunay et sa femme s’éloignent quelque peu du cubisme analytique pour créer des œuvres plus lyriques, voire abstraites. Le cubisme, comme le souligne Apollinaire dans Les Peintres cubistes. Historians have divided the history of Cubism into phases. Dans ce dernier, le mélange des temps, l'enchevêtrement des figures de style, et le manque de ponctuation font ressortir une instabilité émotionnelle qui se traduit par l'émergence de différents points de vue au sein même des poèmes : le lecteur ne sait plus qui est le sujet, de quoi on parle, et le sens du texte. There were also parallels in the development of literature and social thought.[51]. Diverse elements could be superimposed, made transparent or penetrate one another, while retaining their spatial relationships. The conjunction of such subject matter with simultaneity aligns Salon Cubism with early Futurist paintings by Umberto Boccioni, Gino Severini and Carlo Carrà; themselves made in response to early Cubism.[9]. The 1911 New York Times article portrayed works by Picasso, Matisse, Derain, Metzinger and others dated before 1909; not exhibited at the 1911 Salon. Elles pa… The most extreme forms of Cubism were not those practiced by Picasso and Braque, who resisted total abstraction. Der Weg zum Kubismus (Munich, 1920; Eng. Méditations esthétiques (1913), a ouvert la voie de l'abstraction (orphisme, suprématisme, futurisme, rayonnisme, Bauhaus) et de l'art conceptuel (Dada), bien que le cubisme n'ait pas produit d'œuvres totalement dénuées de lien avec la réalité. [27][28], Among all the paintings on exhibition at the Paris Fall Salon none is attracting so much attention as the extraordinary productions of the so-called "Cubist" school. "[13], The most serious objection to regarding the Demoiselles as the origin of Cubism, with its evident influence of primitive art, is that "such deductions are unhistorical", wrote the art historian Daniel Robbins. William H. Robinson, Jordi Falgàs, Carmen Belen Lord, Journal officiel de la République française. Bibliothèque et Archives de l'Assemblée nationale, 2012–7516, The History and Chronology of Cubism, p. 5, La Section d'Or, Numéro spécial, 9 Octobre 1912, "Cubism in Asia: Unbounded Dialogues – Report", Christopher Green, 2009, Cubism, II. A second phase, Synthetic Cubism, remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity. La période du cubisme synthétique est caractérisée par le retour de la couleur et par l'utilisation de la technique des papiers, compositions picturales formées de plusieurs matières. "Le papier peint dans les papiers collés cubists, 1912–1914." Les artistes tchécoslovaques, pour des raisons nationalistes, tentent d'échapper au Sezessionsstil viennois et au Jugendstil allemand et regardent obstinément du côté de Paris. They were composed of very brightly colored roses and other floral patterns in stylized geometric forms. [4], The reemergence of Cubism coincided with the appearance from about 1917–24 of a coherent body of theoretical writing by Pierre Reverdy, Maurice Raynal and Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler and, among the artists, by Gris, Léger and Gleizes. [25], At the Salon d'Automne of the same year, in addition to the Indépendants group of Salle 41, were exhibited works by André Lhote, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Villon, Roger de La Fresnaye, André Dunoyer de Segonzac and František Kupka. In the Armory show Pablo Picasso exhibited La Femme au pot de moutarde (1910), the sculpture Head of a Woman (Fernande) (1909–10), Les Arbres (1907) amongst other cubist works. Le Cubisme est universellement reconnu comme le style artistique le plus novateur et influent du siècle dernier. It was the stimulus behind the proto-Constructivist work of both Naum Gabo and Vladimir Tatlin and thus the starting-point for the entire constructive tendency in 20th-century modernist sculpture. Its theoretical purity made it a gauge against which such diverse tendencies as Realism or Naturalism, Dada, Surrealism and abstraction could be compared. Je crois que ceci se passait en 1906. Ouvrage collectif comprenant aussi une très large section sur le cubisme et une allusion à l'orphisme considéré comme mot d'auteur. Il est inspiré de l’industrialisation, du mythe de la vitesse, de la décomposition de la couleur et de la forme qui est géométrique. But in spite of his use of the term Orphism these works were so different that they defy attempts to place them in a single category. Cette période de recherche se caractérise par un chromatisme très peu saturé (gris, brun, vert, bleu terne). The influence of cubism extended to other artistic fields, outside painting and sculpture. The next logical step, for Duchamp, was to present an ordinary object as a self-sufficient work of art representing only itself. Fernand Léger ( French, 1881 - 1955 ) DATE: c. 1945-1947 MATERIAL AND TECHNIQUE: Print on paper CLASSIFICATION: Works on Paper DIMENSIONS: Image dimensions: 7 × 5 in. 2. Together with other young artists, the group wanted to emphasise a research into form, in opposition to the Neo-Impressionist emphasis on color. Rival de Picasso, il considère que c'est ce tableau qui marque l'acte de naissance du cubisme, et non Les Demoiselles d'Avignon : « Dans mon souvenir, c'est Braque qui a fait la première peinture cubiste. The group's title was suggested by Villon, after reading a 1910 translation of Leonardo da Vinci's Trattato della Pittura by Joséphin Péladan. De 1910 à 1912, Braque et Picasso resserrent leur collaboration et forment ce que Braque désignera sous le nom de « cordée Braque-Picasso ». The occasional return to classicism—figurative work either exclusively or alongside Cubist work—experienced by many artists during this period (called Neoclassicism) has been linked to the tendency to evade the realities of the war and also to the cultural dominance of a classical or Latin image of France during and immediately following the war. With simultaneity, the concept of separate spatial and temporal dimensions was comprehensively challenged. L'utilisation de matériaux imitant le faux bois, le marbre, l'introduction d'éléments de mercerie fait de ces tableaux des compositions que Picasso adopte à son tour, dès l'année suivante : Guitare et Bouteille de Bass, 1913. ou encore La Clarinette de Georges Braque en 1912, qui annonce ainsi l'étape suivante du cubisme synthétique, avec une utilisation du collage, des couleurs et de la matières utilisés afin de construire l'image. [51] In 1911, the poet and critic Guillaume Apollinaire accepted the term on behalf of a group of artists invited to exhibit at the Brussels Indépendants. Il reflète les attitudes des « artistes de Passy », qui comprenaient Picabia et les frères Duchamp, à qui certains de ces passages ont été lus avant publication[5]. Prior to 1914, Picasso, Braque, Gris and Léger (to a lesser extent) gained the support of a single committed art dealer in Paris, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, who guaranteed them an annual income for the exclusive right to buy their works. Tandis que la mécanisation prenait progressivement le pas sur le travail manuel, la mise au point et la diffusion de nouveaux produits transformaient l’environnement quotidien. On comprend qu’il ait pu imprimer une nouvelle direction à toute la peinture moderne ». L'influence de Cézanne sur les premiers cubistes, dont Picasso, Braque et Metzinger, est telle que certains historiens de l'art parlent d'une période « cézannienne » du cubisme pour désigner les œuvres réalisées avant 1910[11]. Alors que Robert et Sonia avaient créé le Salon des réalités nouvelles à la galerie Charpentier, en 1939, dans le but de marquer Sonia Delaunay « la fin du rackett [sic] » des surréalistes[22]. According to Daniel Robbins, "To suggest that merely because these artists developed differently or varied from the traditional pattern they deserved to be relegated to a secondary or satellite role in Cubism is a profound mistake."[51]. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon a valu à Picasso l'appellation de « père fondateur du cubisme » ; à la fin des années 1950, celui-ci a parfois tenté de s'attribuer l'intégralité de la paternité du cubisme[15]. Around 1906, Picasso met Matisse through Gertrude Stein, at a time when both artists had recently acquired an interest in primitivism, Iberian sculpture, African art and African tribal masks. In the heart of darkness (1939-1945), If I Told Him: A Completed Portrait of Picasso, Woman, Bird, Star (Homage to Pablo Picasso), Man with a Pipe (Portrait of an American Smoker), Nature morte (Compotier et cruche décorée de cerfs), Soldat jouant aux échecs (Soldier at a Game of Chess), Femme au miroir (Lady at her Dressing Table), Paysage près de Paris, Paysage de Courbevoie, Cubist Landscape (Paysage cubiste, Arbre et fleuve), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cubism&oldid=991771335, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 19:07. Most of Stein's important works utilize this technique, including the novel The Making of Americans (1906–08). Inspiré par les arts premiers, alors en vogue et qui remettent en cause la tradition picturale occidentale, Cézanne tente de représenter la réalité d'une manière inédite. L'influence du cubisme sur la littérature peut notamment se sentir dans le recueil Alcools, d'Apollinaire (paru en 1913). Il avait rapporté du Sud un paysage méditerranéen qui représente un village côtier en vue plongeante. The Salon de la Section d'Or at the Galerie La Boétie in Paris, October 1912, was arguably the most important pre-World War I Cubist exhibition; exposing Cubism to a wide audience. Jacques Villon exhibited seven important and large drypoints, while his brother Marcel Duchamp shocked the American public with his painting Nude Descending a Staircase, No. In addition to Seurat, the roots of cubism are to be found in the two distinct tendencies of Cézanne's later work: first his breaking of the painted surface into small multifaceted areas of paint, thereby emphasizing the plural viewpoint given by binocular vision, and second his interest in the simplification of natural forms into cylinders, spheres, and cones.

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